The original Arm & Hammer logo usage dates back to the 1860s. James A. Church, son of Dr. Austin Church, ran a spice business known as Vulcan Spice Mills. According to the company, the Arm and Hammer logo represents Vulcan, the Roman god of fire and metalworking.
It is often claimed that the brand name originated with tycoon Armand Hammer; however, the Arm & Hammer brand was in use 31 years before Hammer was born. Hammer was so often asked about the Church & Dwight brand, however, that he attempted to buy the company. While unsuccessful, Hammer's Occidental Petroleum in 1986 acquired enough stock for him to join the Church & Dwight board of directors. Hammer remained one of the owners of Arm & Hammer until his death in 1990.
Industrial-strength bicarbonate cleaning products are labeled under an Arm & Hammer subsidiary division ARMEX.